Maria Jose Lavorante was born in Buenos Aires City, Argentina, in 1979. She graduated as Sc Ba Chemistry from the University of Salvador. She is the Director of Research and Development Department of Renewable Energy at the Institution of Scientific and Technological Research for Defense, Argentina. She is Head Professor at the Engineer Faculty of the Army Div. Grl. Manuel Nicolás Savio, in charge of the subjects Organic Chemistry and Organic Synthesis. She has been a reviewer of different manuscripts to be presented in International Conferences as 2017 International Conference on New Energy and Future Energy System, 2017 International Conference on Water Resource and Environment and 2018. She also works reviewing manuscripts to be published in the scientific journal \"Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers-Energy\". Since, 2017 is part of the Advisory Board of Cambridge Scholars Publishing and reviewer of American Journal of Energy Engineering. She delivered several oral presentations in different International Congresses.
Conductometric titration is an analytical technique that consists of the addition, through a burette, of small equal amounts of titrant to the study system. It presents a lot of advantages in comparison with acid-based titration if the exchange capacity of polymeric materials needs to be determined: it reduces the time of the determination for at least six time depending on the material and the titrant used, it is not necessary to add an acid-based indicator so the system under study is not exposed to contamination and cannot influence the determination error due to the wide range of pH that the indicators present. The technician requires simple training to determine the final point because the technique only consists of adding the same amount of titrant to the system (polymeric material and deionized water) every specified period of time and register the conductivity of the solution. The sample of polymeric material does not need to be pre-treated (dissolved to make the determination) so this reduces the time of sample preparation, and the previous work to find the correct solvent or mixture of solvent for the system does not affect the results of the determination and the time needed to carry out this operation. Through the graphical representation of conductivity as a function of the volume of titrant added that consists of two straight lines that intersect at the equivalent point, it is possible to obtain the volume of titrant needed to complete the reaction proposed between the polymer and the titrant: exchange or neutralization.
Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. Rainer Schenk, Ordinarius für Strömungsmechanik, i.R, Rosenberg 17, 06193, WETTIN-LÖBEJÜM, OT Wettin, Germany, [email protected]\r\n\r\nThe author earned his doctorate in 1968 at the Technical University Merseburg to Dr.-Ing. From 1968 to 1970 he graduated from the Academy of Sciences of the former USSR in Akademgorodok Novosibirsk with an additional degree in the field of \"Computational Fluid Dynamics\". In 1970 he was appointed professor for the field of theoretical fluid mechanics at the Merseburg University of Technology. Since 1972 he has been active in modeling the spread of air pollutants. In 1972, the author was appointed as a full member in the main research direction \"air pollution control\" at the Academy of Sciences of the former GDR. In 1978, he was appointed Head of Environmental Monitoring at the Center for Environmental Design in Wittenberg.There, local environmental scenarios were analyzed and cross-border pollutant transport calculated. In 1982, the author habilitated under the direction of the ordinary members of the Academies of Sciences of the USSR and the former GDR Prof. Janenko and Prof. Albring a the Technical University of Dresden. He will later be appointed full professor of fluid mechanics at the Technische Hochschule Zittau, Germany. There he develops a generalized propagation model based on MAXWELL\'s molecular theory, which was later developed, for example, into a propagation model for heavy gases and vapors. From 1994 to 2014, the author was honorary professor at the Dresden University of Technology, Internationales Hochschulinstitut Zittau. In the years from 2014 to the present, the author deals in depth with the validity of the propagation model for air pollutants AUSTAL2000, which has been financially supported since 1984 by the Federal Environment Agency Germany and declared as binding in 1992 for all applications in the Federal Republic of Germany has been. The author was able to show that all reference solutions of this propagation model are faulty and not suitable for applications. The authors of the AUSTAL calculate deceptively soil concentrations and disguise their ignorance in the field of mathematics and mechanics\r\n
By the authors, JANICKE (2000, 2002), Germany, for the calculation of the propagation of air pollutants under the designation AUSTAL2000 a \"Model-based assessment system for the plant-related pollution control\" is developed. This propagation model is declared binding in the Federal Republic of Germany for the application. All other model developers have to validate their algorithms on the provided reference solutions. However, for example, SCHENK (2015-1, SCHENK-2, 2017), Germany, demonstrates that these reference solutions are flawed. Principal and conservation laws are violated. In various publications and other statements by TRUKENMÜLLER (2015, 2016, 2017), Umweltbundesamt Deutschland, the objections raised by SCHENK (2015-1, SCHENK-2, 2017), Germany, are denied and it is vehemently disputed. This article analyzes the causes of this maldevelopment further. It turns out that the life story of the propagation model AUSTAL2000 according to Axenfeld et al. (1984) begins with the preposterous notion that deposition is not conservation but loss. The second life story is described by the authors of the AUSTAL2000 itself. It arrogantly occupies mathematical and physical incomprehension as an expertise in the field of modeling the spread of air pollutants. The incorrect and correct reference solutions are compared.